Pages from the Romanian history of national intelligence, diplomatic and military research
Pages from the Romanian history
of national intelligence, diplomatic and
Author: colonel (r) Aron DUMITRU
Coordinator: Ph.D. Octavian DUMITRESCU
Publisher: National Defense University, Bucharest, 2009
The book was published at the 150 year-celebration since the ruler Alexandru Ioan Cuza established the first intelligence and research structure in the Romanian army.
The author says the paper is based on a great historical and universal research. Where the historical data were missing or they were vague, they were supplemented by hypotheses of the author, who has sufficient expertise in the field. We have no reason to doubt it and the whole book is an evidence of his professionalism. Furthermore, we are certain that the research techniques ad procedures as well as the elements used are the most appropriate for the respective period.
It has always been difficult to speak about the role and the importance of the intelligence, diplomatic, counter-intelligence and research activities, but all of those can be deduced by analyzing the conflicts and their results. The research procedures used by troops in all types of combat and in all historical periods have been quite the same with the ones used nowadays and they are permanently aiming to get as much intelligence about the enemy as possible in order to be successful in the fight.
The author analyzes the Romanians intelligence activities in historical stages: the Geto-Dacians; in the three Romanian princedoms (Tara Romaneasca, Moldova and Transylvania) until the beginning of the 17th century; during the military occupation in 14 July-12 September 1683 (the siege of Vienna); and during the Independence War (1877-1878); during the World War I (1916-1918).
It is interesting that until 1908, there was no mention of an intelligence service in the Romanian country. In 1908, the General Safety Directorate of the state is established in the Ministry of Interior, with the following missions: to collect intelligence within the country and to organize and perform operations in order to collect intelligence outside the country's borders.
Section 2 within the General Staff developed and established offices (Office 2) in the great military unites and they were tasked with counter-intelligence in the army, counter-espionage and intelligence gathering intelligence on the territories of the neighboring countries. In the middle of the war, in 1917, the special safety Service of the Danube Directorate is created, subordinated to the General Headquarters. This service executes specific missions of intelligence gathering, fighting espionage, diversions and terrorist or sabotage actions.
Once the establishment of the united Romanian national state is completed, together with the operations abroad, in order to strengthen and consolidate the relations with all the states of the world, Romania started to build a unitary intelligence service which fits the new international political-strategical realities and its own national needs.
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